Human Spine Models
Spine models for teaching, training, and demonstration of spinal function, nerve root pathology, and intervertebral disc anatomy
The vertebral column or spine is composed of 33 vertebrae (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccyx) separated by intervertebral fibrocartilage discs that are attached to the vertebral bodies via end plates. The spinal column is divided into different regions, which correspond to the curves of the spinal column as well as have some differing and unique characteristics. The cervical and lumbar regions curve anteriorly while the thoracic, sacral, and coccyx regions curve posteriorly.
With the exceptions of cervical vertebrae C1 and C2, a vertebra consists of two main parts: the vertebral body that is located anterior on the vertebrae and the vertebral arch that is located posteriorly. Between or enclosed by these two main structures is the vertebral foramen through which the spinal cord passes and his housed. Two pair of pedicles, two transverse processes, two pair of lamina, and a spinous process form the vertebral arch. Included are four articulating processes or facets, two superior and two inferior. It is between these articulating processes that movement takes place with the superior articulating processes of one vertebra articulating with the inferior articulating processes of the vertebra above it. A laterally positioned opening or foramen is located between each spinal segment (two adjoining vertebrae) through which spinal nerves exit the spinal cord. There are 31 pair of spinal nerves: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal.
An anatomical model of the spine is helpful to teachers and students to:
- View the spinal anatomy in its entirety
- Examine how spinal nerves exit the spinal column
- Understand the pathology of a herniated disc and how it puts pressure on exiting spinal nerves
- Visualize spinal movements and the direction of gliding motions between the articulating processes of adjacent vertebrae during those movements
- Examine the spinal curves and how muscles acting upon them can lead to musculoskeletal deviations
- Observe other unique features of the vertebral segments
ProHealthcareProducts.com has spinal models with attached skulls, pelvic girdles, separate spinal segments, showing pathologies, hanging models and base support models.